Black Nationalism, The New Negro & the African-American Left

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Marcus Garvey Timeline
Marcus Garvey Timeline
From the PBS site companion to their documentary. This useful timeline contains key dates and links to some source material.
Constitution of the UNIA (1918)
Constitution of the UNIA (1918)
Much of this document is a dry exercise in rules and regulations for the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). But it does provide an insight into Garvey's race politics and his desire for control (see, for example, Article V) that would eventually cause problems with the organisation's chapters.
UNIA Declaration of Rights (13th August, 1920)
UNIA Declaration of Rights (13th August, 1920)
This 54-point speech sets out the key aims and grievances of the UNIA.
Marcus Garvey “Address to the Second UNIA Convention” (1921)
Marcus Garvey “Address to the Second UNIA Convention” (1921)
By 1921, the UNIA was becoming the largest African-American organisation in the country. Here Garvey addresses the convention, pointing to a rising tide of nationalism as evidence of the power of his cause.
Marcus Garvey, "The Principles of The UNIA" (1922)
Marcus Garvey, "The Principles of The UNIA" (1922)
Want a brief overview of the origins and aims of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)? This speech from 1922 provides a useful insight.
Marcus Garvey, 'The Negro's Greatest Enemy' (1923)
Marcus Garvey, 'The Negro's Greatest Enemy' (1923)
Part autobiography part account of the rise of the UNIA - should be read in consultation with other sources as Garvey was not afraid to put the best possible gloss on events.
The Marcus Garvey & UNIA Papers Project
The Marcus Garvey & UNIA Papers Project
UCLA has been editing & collecting Garvey material for some time. This site has a photo gallery, audio clips and selected documents relating to the UNIA's operations in the USA, the Caribbean & Africa. A useful resource.
“Our Reason for Being”: A. Philip Randolph Embraces Socialism
“Our Reason for Being”: A. Philip Randolph Embraces Socialism
In the 1910s and 20s, A.Philip Randolph was a leading socialist voice in the struggle for black equality. In 1925, he established the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters - unionising exploited black workers on the Pullman rail network. This editorial from his magazine The Messenger explains why Socialism had a role to play. Later, Randolph would become more conservative, but played a pivotal role in the wartime struggle for black equality and helped organise the 1963 March on Washington.
“Speak, Garvey, Speak!”A Follower Recalls a Garvey Rally
“Speak, Garvey, Speak!”A Follower Recalls a Garvey Rally
The Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey, a brilliant orator and black nationalist leader, turned his Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) into the most important black organization in the United States in the early 1920s. Garvey’s speeches often drew huge audiences, and stories of Garvey’s stubborn resistance in the face of white hostility proliferated among his supporters. In an oral history interview, devotee Audley Moore remembered the Jamaican’s defiant behavior at a rally in New Orleans caused “the [white] police [to] file out . . . like little puppy dogs with their tails behind them.” She proudly recalled the crowd intimidating the police by raising their guns and chanting “speak, Garvey, speak.”