Black Nationalism, The New Negro & the African-American Left
From the PBS site companion to their documentary. This useful timeline contains key dates and links to some source material.
Much of this document is a dry exercise in rules and regulations for the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). But it does provide an insight into Garvey's race politics and his desire for control (see, for example, Article V) that would eventually cause problems with the organisation's chapters.
This 54-point speech sets out the key aims and grievances of the UNIA.
By 1921, the UNIA was becoming the largest African-American organisation in the country. Here Garvey addresses the convention, pointing to a rising tide of nationalism as evidence of the power of his cause.
Want a brief overview of the origins and aims of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)? This speech from 1922 provides a useful insight.
Part autobiography part account of the rise of the UNIA - should be read in consultation with other sources as Garvey was not afraid to put the best possible gloss on events.
UCLA has been editing & collecting Garvey material for some time. This site has a photo gallery, audio clips and selected documents relating to the UNIA's operations in the USA, the Caribbean & Africa. A useful resource.
In the 1910s and 20s, A.Philip Randolph was a leading socialist voice in the struggle for black equality. In 1925, he established the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters - unionising exploited black workers on the Pullman rail network. This editorial from his magazine The Messenger explains why Socialism had a role to play. Later, Randolph would become more conservative, but played a pivotal role in the wartime struggle for black equality and helped organise the 1963 March on Washington.
The Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey, a brilliant orator and black nationalist leader, turned his Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) into the most important black organization in the United States in the early 1920s. Garvey’s speeches often drew huge audiences, and stories of Garvey’s stubborn resistance in the face of white hostility proliferated among his supporters. In an oral history interview, devotee Audley Moore remembered the Jamaican’s defiant behavior at a rally in New Orleans caused “the [white] police [to] file out . . . like little puppy dogs with their tails behind them.” She proudly recalled the crowd intimidating the police by raising their guns and chanting “speak, Garvey, speak.”