Black Nationalism - Malcolm X, the Nation of Islam, Black Power & Black Panthers

Resources & websites on the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, Black Panthers, US and more.  Also explore the videos page for further material.

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Malcolm X: A Search for Truth
Malcolm X: A Search for Truth
The online version of an exhibition from the NYPL. A really useful brief introduction with timelines, lesson plans and links to other sources.
The Malcolm X Project at Columbia
The Malcolm X Project at Columbia
The late Manning Marable contributed to the creation of this site that contains Malcolm's speeches, interviews with those who knew him, audio and video. A useful online archive.
Malcolm
Malcolm
Website containing a chronology of Malcolm's life, links to speeches, audio & video, comprehensive bibliography and webliography. An essential point of reference for Malcolm X scholars.
Life Pictures: Eve Arnold on the NOI
Life Pictures: Eve Arnold on the NOI
14 pictures taken by Eve Arnold - a member of the Magnum photo agency (an elite cooperative) took these pictures in 1960. Life refused to publish them on the grounds that the NOI were unknown at the time. The pictures later appeared in Esquire magazine.
The Hate That Hate Produced (1959)
The Hate That Hate Produced (1959)
This TV documentary, first aired in July 1959, was the first time many people outside of the black community had heard of the Nation of Islam.
Alex Haley, Malcolm X Interview, Playboy (May 1963)
Alex Haley, Malcolm X Interview, Playboy (May 1963)
This interview was conducted with Malcolm prior to his exit from the Nation of Islam. It was one reason why Haley ended up writing Malcolm's Autobiography with him. A useful analysis of the Nation's agenda and Malcolm's place within it.
Life Magazine, 31st May, 1963
Life Magazine, 31st May, 1963
Life devoted over ten pages of this edition to exploring the Nation os Islam. The edition features photographs, an interview with Malcolm X, and reflections from Gordon Parks, the photographer who took the pictures.
Malcolm X, "Message to the Grass Roots" (November 10th, 1963)
Malcolm X, "Message to the Grass Roots" (November 10th, 1963)
One of the last seeches from Malcolm's time as a member of the Nation of Islam. Already, Malcolm was emphasising the international focus of the freedom struggle, but he also meditated on the nature of revolution.
Malcolm X, "The Ballot or the Bullet" (April 12th 1964)
Malcolm X, "The Ballot or the Bullet" (April 12th 1964)
A key speech from Malcolm after his split with the Nation of Islam. In it, Malcolm explains black nationalism, critiques the civil rights agenda in favour of a broader human rights agenda.
Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Black Man in America (1965)
Elijah Muhammad, Message to the Black Man in America (1965)
Appearing the same year as Malcolm X's death, this was the leader of the Nation of Islam's book designed to spell out the philosophy and creed of the Nation.
SNCC Position Paper: The Basis of Black Power (1966)
SNCC Position Paper: The Basis of Black Power (1966)
From 1960-1966, SNCC had been a key organisation in the nonviolent struggle for black equality. But in 1966, the election of a new leader - Stokely Carmichael - and frustration with both the slow pace of change and perceived inadequacy of the civil rights agenda led SNCC to radicalise. This statement sets out that new radical agenda. How does it differ from previous calls for equality and integration - and why?
The Black Panther Party Platform & Program (1966)
The Black Panther Party Platform & Program (1966)
The original 10-point plan and explanation of the Black Panther Party from 1966. Formed in Oakland, California by Huey P. Newton & Bobby Seale.
Stokely Carmichael, 'On Black Power' (October 1966)
Stokely Carmichael, 'On Black Power' (October 1966)
Text an audio of a speech by Carmichael in which he sets out his vision of Black Power and explains why the old aims and tactics (integration & nonviolence) no longer work.
Martin Luther King, "Black Power Defined" (June 11th 1967)
Martin Luther King, "Black Power Defined" (June 11th 1967)
In this speech, King sought to advocate a version of Black Power different to that pursued by Stokely Carmichael or the BPP. How does King's version differ - and what does it tell you about the problem in defining the term 'Black Power' itself?
Stokely Carmichael, "From Black Power to Pan-Africanism" (22/3/71)
Stokely Carmichael, "From Black Power to Pan-Africanism" (22/3/71)
By 1971, Carmichael was pursuing a Pan-Africanist agenda that the discrimination endured by African Americans was simply one manifestation of the global misery caused by European colonization. His speech described black power as part of a world-wide revolutionary freedom movement, with Africa's tradition of communalistic societies as the model for liberation in a post-capitalist future.
Frank Benson Jones testifies before Congress
Frank Benson Jones testifies before Congress
The transcript of a congressional hearing into the Panthers. Here, an ex-member, Frank Benson Jones, explains why he joined the Party in 1968.
It's About Time: Black Panther Party Legacy & Alumni
It's About Time: Black Panther Party Legacy & Alumni
A website celebrating the past and a meeting place for past members. Take time to explore to find stories from the BPP's newspaper, photos, artwork and more from the period. A useful 'scrapbook' of opnions, images and experiences.
American Radicalism: The Black Panthers
American Radicalism: The Black Panthers
14 scanned documents from Michigan State University. Probably locally produced - these are all examples of the local Panther's use of print to further their cause. Click on the word 'pdf' next to the image to see the full original.
Seattle Black Panther Party  History and Memory Project
Seattle Black Panther Party History and Memory Project
A great site about the history of one the local chapters of the Black Panther Party. Filled with documents, oral histories, video clips. A useful resource for charting the local appeal of this national organisation.
Eldridge Cleaver Interview (1997)
Eldridge Cleaver Interview (1997)
Shortly before his death, and after a live that had led Cleaver's politics to shift to the right, this interview gave Cleaver - a writer and leading intellectual during the early years of the Panthers - a chance to reflect on the Party.