Black Nationalism - Malcolm X, the Nation of Islam, Black Power & Black Panthers
Resources & websites on the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, Black Panthers, US and more. Also explore the videos page for further material.
The online version of an exhibition from the NYPL. A really useful brief introduction with timelines, lesson plans and links to other sources.
The late Manning Marable contributed to the creation of this site that contains Malcolm's speeches, interviews with those who knew him, audio and video. A useful online archive.
Website containing a chronology of Malcolm's life, links to speeches, audio & video, comprehensive bibliography and webliography. An essential point of reference for Malcolm X scholars.
14 pictures taken by Eve Arnold - a member of the Magnum photo agency (an elite cooperative) took these pictures in 1960. Life refused to publish them on the grounds that the NOI were unknown at the time. The pictures later appeared in Esquire magazine.
This TV documentary, first aired in July 1959, was the first time many people outside of the black community had heard of the Nation of Islam.
This interview was conducted with Malcolm prior to his exit from the Nation of Islam. It was one reason why Haley ended up writing Malcolm's Autobiography with him. A useful analysis of the Nation's agenda and Malcolm's place within it.
Life devoted over ten pages of this edition to exploring the Nation os Islam. The edition features photographs, an interview with Malcolm X, and reflections from Gordon Parks, the photographer who took the pictures.
One of the last seeches from Malcolm's time as a member of the Nation of Islam. Already, Malcolm was emphasising the international focus of the freedom struggle, but he also meditated on the nature of revolution.
A key speech from Malcolm after his split with the Nation of Islam. In it, Malcolm explains black nationalism, critiques the civil rights agenda in favour of a broader human rights agenda.
Appearing the same year as Malcolm X's death, this was the leader of the Nation of Islam's book designed to spell out the philosophy and creed of the Nation.
From 1960-1966, SNCC had been a key organisation in the nonviolent struggle for black equality. But in 1966, the election of a new leader - Stokely Carmichael - and frustration with both the slow pace of change and perceived inadequacy of the civil rights agenda led SNCC to radicalise. This statement sets out that new radical agenda. How does it differ from previous calls for equality and integration - and why?
The original 10-point plan and explanation of the Black Panther Party from 1966. Formed in Oakland, California by Huey P. Newton & Bobby Seale.
Text an audio of a speech by Carmichael in which he sets out his vision of Black Power and explains why the old aims and tactics (integration & nonviolence) no longer work.
In this speech, King sought to advocate a version of Black Power different to that pursued by Stokely Carmichael or the BPP. How does King's version differ - and what does it tell you about the problem in defining the term 'Black Power' itself?
By 1971, Carmichael was pursuing a Pan-Africanist agenda that the discrimination endured by African Americans was simply one manifestation of the global misery caused by European colonization. His speech described black power as part of a world-wide revolutionary freedom movement, with Africa's tradition of communalistic societies as the model for liberation in a post-capitalist future.
The transcript of a congressional hearing into the Panthers. Here, an ex-member, Frank Benson Jones, explains why he joined the Party in 1968.
A website celebrating the past and a meeting place for past members. Take time to explore to find stories from the BPP's newspaper, photos, artwork and more from the period. A useful 'scrapbook' of opnions, images and experiences.
14 scanned documents from Michigan State University. Probably locally produced - these are all examples of the local Panther's use of print to further their cause. Click on the word 'pdf' next to the image to see the full original.
A great site about the history of one the local chapters of the Black Panther Party. Filled with documents, oral histories, video clips. A useful resource for charting the local appeal of this national organisation.
Shortly before his death, and after a live that had led Cleaver's politics to shift to the right, this interview gave Cleaver - a writer and leading intellectual during the early years of the Panthers - a chance to reflect on the Party.